Importance Of Scholarship Exam

Whenever we appear in any competitive exam we feel as we are in competition and we study with concetration and try to do our level best . In this way our skills develop and we keep ourselves updated .  Let’s see it’s importannce :

  1. Extra knowledge 
  2. Skills to solve sums faster
  3. Abilty developments
  4. Inborn tendency develops
  5. Vocabulary development
  6. Grammar 
  7. General knwoledge
  8. Confidence develops
  9. Strong base for future studies
  10. Mental peace as some children are always thirsty to acqure the knowledge .
  11. Gaining name and fame after gaining the scholarship 
  12. More reapect and recognition if someone attains scholarship 
  13. It adds an extra qualification in your bio-data .

FAQs (RTE Act and Rules Maharashtra State)

FAQs (RTE Act and Rules)


1. When did the Act come into effect?

2. What are the main provisions of the RTE Act?

3. Is the RTE Act applicable to all schools in India?

4. Which schools are exempt from all the provisions of the RTE Act?

5. Are some schools exempt from constituting a School Management Committee required by the RTE Act?

6. Are some schools exempt from the 25% free reservation requirement of the RTE Act?

7. What are the main features of the 2012 Amendment?

8. What is the relationship of State Rules to the Act?

9. What is the relationship of existing State education Acts to the RTE Act?

10. Where can I get the full texts of the RTE Act, the 2012 Amendment , the Maharashtra State Rules , Central Government Model Rules and other State Rules ?


1. When did the Act come into effect?

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 was passed by Parliament and came into effect from April 1, 2010.


2. What are the main provisions of the RTE Act?


  • All children of the age of six to fourteen years have a right to free and compulsory education in a neighbourhood government school till completion of elementary education (Classes 1-8). This neighborhood school is to be established by 2013.
  • All children have a right to full-time elementary education in a recognised school. No part-time classes/non-formal schools or unrecognized schools are considered as legal alternatives.
  • All recognised schools must provide good quality education which includes a set of basic facilities, minimum instructional hours and an adequate number of teachers, as specified in the Act. These provisions are to be implemented by 2013. All teachers in recognised schools must be qualified by 2015.
  • Under the 25% reservation requirement of the Act, some economically and socially disadvantaged children, as well as those with disabilities, will receive free education in private unaided and minority aided schools, as well as specified schools such as Kendriya Vidyalayas, Navodaya Vidyalayas and Sainik Schools.
  • No school can charge donations or capitation fees, and neither can student admissions be based on the testing of children or any screening procedure, including the interviews of either children or their parents.
  • No child can be subject to physical punishment or mental harassment, be held back in a class, or be expelled from school till completion of elementary education.
  • Most schools are required to constitute a School Management Committee (SMC), composed mainly of parents. Its main functions are to monitor the working of the school, monitor the utilisation of school grants and prepare the school development plan.
  • While Central and State Governments have joint funding responsibilities, the State Governments and Local Authorities are mainly responsible for implementation of the Act. • The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) and every State Commission for Protection of Child Rights (SCPCR) is responsible for monitoring the implementation of the Act, and for inquiring into complaints against violations of the Act.
  • A small proportion of schools are exempt from all or some of the provisions of the RTE Act.


3. Is the RTE Act applicable to all schools in India?


The RTE Act applies to all government , aided and private schools, including schools affiliated to state, national and international boards.


4, Which schools are exempt from all the provisions of the RTE Act?


  • Schools in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Madrassas, Vedic Patshalas and educational institutions primarily imparting religious instruction
  • Unaided minority schools are excluded from the Act, according to the 2012 Supreme Court Judgement.


5. Are some schools exempt from constituting a School Management Committee required by the RTE Act?


Yes. The Act exempts private unaided schools from constituting a School Management Committee. The Act also notes that School Management Committees in minority aided schools and government aided schools need perform advisory functions only. All other schools have to have a School Management Committee.


6. Are some schools exempt from the 25% free reservation requirement of the RTE Act?


Yes. Those schools like religious schools and minority unaided schools are exempt from this as they are exempt from the entire Act itself. Acting on the Supreme Court directive, the Central Government guideline notes that the 25% reservation requirement does not apply to boarding or residential schools which admit students only after Class 1. In boarding or residential schools which have Class 1, the 25% reservation applies to day scholarsonly.


7. What are the main features of the 2012 Amendment?


The main provisions of the 2012 Amendment to the RTE Act passed by both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha include:

  • Exemption of Madrassas, Vedic Patshalas and educational institutions imparting primarily religious instruction.
  • Expands the definition of ‘disadvantage’ to include children with disabilities, and broadens the definition of disability.
  • In minority aided schools and government aided schools, School Management Committees need perform advisory functions only.


8. What is the relationship of State Rules to the Act?


Each state is required to devise its Rules in order to help operationalise and enforce the RTE Act. To facilitate implementation, these Rules are meant to cover a number of areas including a listing of the duties of State Government and Local Authorities, the rights of children, the responsibilities of schools and teachers, the list of facilities required in every school and the compositions and functions of the School Management Committees. Between 2010-2012, all states have framed their own rules based to varying degrees on the Central Government Model Rules issued in 2010.


9. What is the relationship of existing State education Acts to the RTE Act?


On a concurrent subject like education, no State Act can be in violation of a Central Act like RTE. Therefore, provisions of State Education Acts have to be changed, where necessary, to be in line with the provisions of the RTE Act.


10. Where can I get the full texts of the RTE Act, the 2012 Amendment, the Maharashtra State Rules, Central Government Model Rules and other State Rules ?

RTE Act (English) : Click here.

RTE Act (Marathi):


RTE Act (Hindi): Click here.

Best Ways to Win Angry Parents

Let’s see the best ways to treat parents . Why do I feel to write this article ? Many time we teachers experienced the misbehavior of parents . Why do parents misbehave ? There may be several reasons . Let’s see how to solve this problem creatively .

When I was working in BPO industry , I was taught to handle unsatisfied customers. The best method they taught to us ,is hidden in one word . Let’s see that specific word . The word is ‘ LAST’ .

LAST is acronym of:  1. Listen 2. Apologize 3. Satisfy 4. Thanks

Thus the first task to calm down an angry parents is to listen them. Let them ventilate their grieves ,complaints or suggestions.

You should have a diary with you to note down their ideas ,suggestions.

Don’t interrupt while they speak . Give them complete freedom to speak .

Before you reply , just check yourself are you capable to reply them . In case you find difficult to answer , ask them to leave their contacts.  You should ensure them they will get call from you to discuss these points in detail latter on . Tell them their all points are very important . They will not only help to their children but good for entire school . In this way you will make them feel important.

If you are capable to reply , plan your answer . Reply them point to point as per your checklist you have written in your diary .

During this entire process ,the most important thing is to keep your mind cool . Some time some parents are highly educated . They may be very rich . They may be working at some higher posts  . So they may have become  egoist , arrogant . At that time remember that you are talking to the parents of your students . In case you find difficult to handle them , take the help of some experienced teachers in your school . And it is a great idea to have camera ( CCTV ) in parents teacher meeting room .

We , teachers should behave with parents respectfully . Give respect, take respect .

Mannerism plays important role while behaving with parents .

Mobile and Education

Mobile and Education go hand in hand , today we cannot isolate ourselves from power of internet . As it has become part and parcel of our life . Our children know the functionality of mobile . They know how to download different apps . They can spend their time playing games on mobile . Their this interest can be used for teaching them .

Many times illiterate or less qualified people know only misuses of mobile  . So they cannot understand the application of mobiles in education . They prohibit children to play on mobile . But truly saying these parents and children both should be provided with counseling for the educational uses of mobile .

They can read e-books on mobile .

Let’s see some useful apps :

  1.  :  This app is compatible with iPhone , Blackberry , Android . is a dictionary and thesaurus that provide access to nearly two million words. This app also says the words if you tap speaker icon .For this internet connection is not needed.
  2. Sleep Cycle Alarm Clock :  This app is compatible with iPhone, iPod etc. Using an accelerometer that monitors your sleep movement , the Sleep Cycle alarm clock wakes you up during your lightest  sleep phase . In theory this means that you should get up with more freshness .
  3. Mental case : This app helps to create notes .It helps to create flash cards which can be equipped with charts, pictures, animations, audio etc.
  4. Wikipanion : This app helps to surf Wikipedia, online encyclopedia etc. Its search speed is really amazing .
  5. Ez Read : This app will help you to read literature , poetry etc.

There are more than this , because nowadays , each and every seconds there is a explosion of knowledge . It has become very difficult to cope with this , I would like to advise that we should have some news app like NewsHunt , in our mobile which will help us to keep ourselves updated .

Students can enroll themselves to email notifications to different educational sites like .

Importance Of School Mapping

Primary education in India is predominantly funded and managed by the government.  Therefore, investment decisions by the Government  determine the pattern of expansion of education­al facilities.  Over a period of time it is noticed that certain areas are more endowed with school facilities than other areas.  School mapping is an essential planning tool to overcome possi­bilities of regional inequities arising from the investment policies of the public authorities.

     School mapping incorporates spatial and demographic dimen­sions into theeducational planning process.  The major question answered by the school mapping exercise is where to locate educational facilities.  Location of educational facilities depends on the norms and standards developed by the public authorities.  Even within the norms and standards, many geographical areas may be eligible for opening of new schools. School mapping technique helps us to identify the most appropriate location of schools or their alternatives so that more number of children can be benefited from the same level of investment. The major objective of school mapping is to create equality ofeducational opportunities by leveling off of the existing disparities in the distribution ofeducational facilities.  This technique is useful to plan all levels of education.  However, it is more widely used for planning for facilities at the compulsory levels ofeducation.  School mapping is not confined to locating formal schools; location of alternatives to formal schools is a part of the school mapping exercise.

The methodology of school mapping envisages specification of norms, diagnosis of the existing educational facilities, projection of future population, deciding the location of schools, estimates of facilities required in all the (existing and new)educational  institutions and estimation of financial resources required.    One of the first steps in school mapping is to select a unit for the exercise.  The school mapping exercises help identifying the most ideal locations to open schools.  Given this primary purpose school mapping exercises can not be undertaken for one village  or habitation.  A cluster of villages or a block can be an ideal unit for school mapping activities. The next step involved is to diagnose or assess the educational development in the selected area.  The effort is to analyse the present status of education in an area/region to identify strength and weakness of the system and to understand the geographical distribution of educational facilities in the selected locality.

For diagnosing the educational situation it is better to collect data on the selected items during the previous 4 - 5 years or a decade.  We may require data on population, literacy enrollment, teachers, building, flow rates of students, infrastructure etc.  The population data are very important in school mapping exercises.  Data on total population by sex, caste and age group for atleast two points of time are minimum requirements.  We may also need to have data on popula­tion of age groups 6-11 and 11-14.  For diagnosing educational situation data on important indicators like literacy rate, enrollment ratios, retention rates  and dropout rates are required.  The present status of teachers position is important and in this respect data on number of teachers by qualification, experience, training and sex are required.  Similarly, teacher-pupil ratio is also important to assess the present situation.  Another set of information re­quired is on buildings and infrastructure facilities. Information on the condition of building, number of rooms, type of building and on other facilities in schools like blackboard, water, toi­let, electricity, playground, etc. are useful to prepare school specific plans.

The next step in school mapping exercise is to assess the number of children to be enrolled.  This estimate is to be made on the basis of catchment area of school and it requires projection of total and school age specific population.  There are various methods of population projection.  Method of popula­tion projections are classified into three categories namely Mathematical, Economic and Component methods.  Keeping in view scant demographic data at the block and district level, it is not possible to undertake detailed population projection exercise.  Therefore, growth rates and ratio methods of population projection are more commonly used at this level. Enrolment projections are important to decide on the opening of new schools, up-gradation of existing schools and to estimate the number of teachers required.  The techniques of enrolment projections can broadly be classified into two-mathematical and analytical methods.  Mathematical methods require aggregate enrolment data at least for five to ten years, and only total enrolment can be projected.  On the other hand, analytical meth­ods require promotion, drop-out, repetition and apparent entry rates.  There are three simple methods of enrolment projections, namely, rate of growth, enrolment ratio and grade-transition methods.  The application of a particular method depends upon the requirements and the availability of data.  At the lowest level, cohort method for grade-wise enrolment projections are more desirable.  However, at the local level many information required to make reliable projections are not available.  Therefore, one may have to depend on the most probable approximations.  For example, the projection method used to derive school age-group children in this exercise is based on the assumption of a fixed proportion of the total population.

The next step in the exercise is to specify norms, standards and catchment area.   Opening of new schools or their alterna­tives are based on the norms regarding threshold population, which indirectly defines the potential number of children to be en­rolled in a given locality.  In India the norm that is followed is to open a primary school in areas which have a population of 300 and above in plain areas and 250 or above in the remote or tribal areas.  Similarly, after the 1986 policy, the norm adopted for the number of teachers is a minimum of two teachers in all the primary schools irrespective of the size of enrollment.  The other important norm is regarding the maximum permissi­ble distance a child has to travel from home to school. This in the school mapping terminology means definition of catchment area of a school.  The catchment area of a school is the geo­graphical area served by a school.  It is defined as the maximum acceptable distance a child can travel from home to school.  Normally catchment area is measured in terms of area of a circle or Hexagon.  In India, especially in the remote areas, the set­tlement is in habitations.  One may frequently come across situations in remote areas in India where one may not find any house­hold for  long distances.  And where habitations are located, it may have a cluster of households.  Given this pattern of population settlement in India, we have not adopted the traditional catchment area concept.  What we have adopted alternatively is a distance matrix method whereby the distances between habitations are measured.  Therefore, number of habitations and their dis­tances from the school are considered to decide the catchment area of the school.  It is easy to develop distance matrix.  The only information required to develop such a matrix is the distances between habitations or villages.  The distances are to be measured from the locations within villages or habitation where households are concentrated.  These details can be obtained through a survey.

 It is easy to locate schools based on the distance matrix method.  As mentioned earlier, location of schools is based on the norms and resources available.  If the public authorities have resources to open schools wherever they are required, then prioritization is a less meaningful technique.  However, schools are opened only in some selected locations.  The norms form the basis to prioritise such decisions.  Based on the distance norms and the resources available, decisions regarding opening of new schools, if any required, can be arrived at. As part of the school mapping exercise, one may have to assess the requirements of facilities in schools.  While the facilities to be provided in the new school can be easily as­sessed, the same in the existing schools need to be based on an assessment of the existing facilities in these schools.  Based on the population growth and potential growth in enrollment, additional infrastructural facilities may be required in the existing schools.  It may be important to incorporate not only the infrastructural facilities but also other requirements of teaching learning materials to be purchased in the school.  Based on these requirements cost estimates can be made and proposals can be prepared for funding

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