Maths notes

D.El.Ed/JBT 2nd Yr Maths Notes


Maths notes

D.El.Ed/JBT 2nd Yr Maths Notes

Syllabus Define

Unit 1 Mathematical Reasoning                                   15 Marks

  • Means of generalization; Sample recognition and Inductive reasoning
  • Construction of Arithmetic: Axioms, Definitions, Theorems
  • Validation Means of Mathematical Statements: Proofs, Counters Examples, Conjecture
  • Downside Fixing in Arithmetic: A Course of
  • Artistic Pondering in Arithmetic



Variety of patterns are noticed in nature, in our environment, and many others.


  • Sample in days of week.
  • Sample in color of a curtain.
  • Geometrical sample on the wall of a monument.
  • Patterns with numerals.

All such patterns are wanted to be recognised correctly in order that the continuation of a sample is understood prematurely. Individuals who observe and recognise the sample actually admire the fantastic thing about arithmetic. Once we come throughout some sample, we now have to push our brains to recognise the sample. So, sample recognition is a vital mind job and step one within the strategy of generalising the sequence.


Inductive reasoning is the method of analysing patterns after recognition to kind generalisations. 

Inductive Reasoning in Each day Life

For Instance

(a)  Sujan appeared in a contest take a look at and handed it. He was sporting his inexperienced trouser on the day of the examination. Once more he cleared an interview, sporting the identical trouser on the time of the interview. So he logically generalised that sporting his inexperienced trouser all the time present success to him.

(b) A boy dropped a ball from a sure top. It bounced to some top. Subsequent time, he dropped the ball from a better level. This time, the ball bounced greater than the primary time. The third ball bounced greater than the primary time. The third time, he dropped it from a better level and noticed the ball bouncing to a top greater than the primary bounce and second bounce. So, he logically concluded that the extra the drop top, the extra is the peak of bounce for a ball.

(C) At some point a mother made her child slept and went to market. The child wakened in her absence and located the mom lacking. The subsequent day once more, the child didn’t discover his mom when he wakened. Now the child was terrified of sleeping or he slept solely after tightly holding his mom’s garments or nostril or ear. It’s because he generalised that his sleep will result in the ‘lacking of mom’.

Inductive reasoning for Instructing Arithmetic

College students attempt to comply with the sample or idea through the use of the earlier information.
Studying arithmetic ought to contain a continuing seek for patterns, with college students making educated guesses.
The formulae, guidelines, and many others. obtained by inductive reasoning kind a pointy impression within the thoughts of scholars.


(a) College students might use inductive reasoning to find patterns in multiplying by ten or multiplying by hundred:

3 x 10  = 30 3 x 100 = 300

8 x 10  = 80 8 x 100 = 800

        10 x 10  = 100                10 x 100 = 1000

        18 x 10  = 180               18 x 100 = 1800

        74 x 10  = 740         74 x 100 = 7400

(b) College students are instructed to attract a number of triangles and measure all three sides of every triangle. They discover the sum of any two sides and examine it with the third aspect, for every triangle. By means of inductive reasoning, they attain the outcome that ‘in a triangle sum of two sides is larger than the third aspect’.

(c) College students are instructed to attract a number of triangles and measure all three angles of every triangle. The sum of all angles in every triangle provides them an incredible outcome. By means of inductive reasoning, they conclude that the ‘sum of three angles in every triangle is 1800’.

There are quite a few examples of inductive reasoning in arithmetic that present concluding statements or outcomes or formulae.

                             PROCESS OF GENERALISATION

Generalisation:- A basic assertion or idea obtained by inference from particular circumstances.

The generalisation of statements or outcomes kind formulae, theorems and many others.

The steps to realize generalisation are:

  1. Commentary
  2. Sample recognition
  3. Inductive reasoning 
  4. Formation of speculation 
  5. Verification of speculation 
  6. Generalisation     

Instance: If the sample of T-shapes continues in a given determine, what number of squares might be within the one hundredth T-shapes?     

We are going to first reveal the generalisation for the sample:

(a) Commentary: The sample is noticed fastidiously. It’s noticed that in every subsequent T-shape, one sq. is added to every of the highest left nook, prime proper nook and on the finish of every vertical column in T.

(b) Sample recognition. With such subsequent additions of squares, the sample is recognised as follows: 

T- form     1      2    3    4    …      n    …    100
Variety of squares    5      8    11    14    …    …    …    …

(c) Inductive reasoning: 

Thought course of might go as:

5 > 1, 8 > 2, 11 > 3 … and so forth

Or 5 > 3 × 1,         8 > 3 × 2         11 > 3 × 3  … and so forth

Or 5 > 3, 8 > 6, 11 > 9 … and so forth

(d) Formation of speculation. The rule for no. of squares in nth T-shape in 3n + 2.

(e) Verification of speculation.

For n = 2, No. of squares = 3 × 2 + 2

  = 6 + 2 

  = 8 which is true

For n = 3, No. of sq. = 3 × 3 + 2 

= 9 + 2

= 11 which is true

For n = 4, No. of sq. = 3 × 4 + 2

= 12 + 2

= 14 Which is true

(f)  Generalisation. Within the given sample,

      For every nth T-shape, no. of sq. = 3n + 2.

   Answer of query: Making use of the above generalisation rule, no. of sq. in one hundredth T-shape           
= 3 × 100 + 2

      = 300 + 2 = 302


(a) The method proceeds logically.
(b) The method encourages the scholars to look at and assume for recognising the sample.
(c) The method makes the scholars use earlier information for inductive reasoning.
(d) The method empowers the inventive potential of scholars whereas forming hypotheses.
(e) The method supplies satisfaction and belief in arithmetic whereas verifying the speculation.
(f) College students really feel inspired and satisfied whereas generalising the outcome (cognitive improvement).     


There are particular statements, that are accepted with out proof. These are often called axioms or postulates. These universally accepted assumptions that are particular to geometry are known as postulates. The assumptions which can be used all through arithmetic and never particularly linked to geometry are known as axioms.

Among the primary postulates are as follows:

(a) A line is a set of factors containing at the least two factors.

(b) Two straight strains can’t intersect in a couple of level.

Among the postulates given by Euclid are as follows:

(a) A straight line could also be drawn from anyone level to aby different level.

(b) A circle may be drawn with any centre and any radius.

(c) All proper angles are equal to at least one one other.

Axioms given by Euclid 

(a) Issues that are equal to the identical factor are equal to at least one one other.

(b) If equals are added to equals, the wholes are equal.

(c) If equals are subtracted from equals, the remainders are equal.

(d) Issues which coincide with each other are equal to at least one one other.

(e) The entire is larger than the half.

(f) Issues that are double of the identical issues are equal to at least one one other.

(g) Issues that are halves of the identical issues are equal to at least one one other.


A press release that gives that means to a ‘phrase’ or ‘group of phrases’ is named definition. A definition not solely clarifies the particular ‘phrase’ or ‘group of phrases’, but additionally formes the bottom of the entire idea within the thoughts of scholars. Figures are additionally included within the definition if required.

Kinds of definition:

(a) Philosophical definitions 

These definitions that are fashioned through the use of solely phrases or language. These are obscure. For instance- the definition of ‘level’, ‘line’ as it’s tough to think about a degree or a line defined solely by a number of phrases.

(b) Explanatory definitions

These definitions which use well-labelled figures to clarify the phrase or group of phrases. These are straightforward to be grasped by college students. For instance, definitions of vertically reverse angles, sector of a circle and many others. together with explanatory figures as proven:

(c) Important Definitions:

These definitions that designate primary phrases and ideas. These are to be learnt by college students. For instance, the definition of rectangle, rhombus, trapezium and many others.

  Traits of fine definition

  1.  Easy: Definition is fashioned just by utilizing straightforward language and recognized phrases.
  2.  Clear: Definition should be such that it totally explains the related time period or idea.
  3.  Transient: It should be fashioned of minimal phrases or sentences that designate the time period.


A mathematical assertion whose reality has been established is named a theorem. Normally, the assertion of a theorem consists of two elements: if….., then….., ‘if’ half provides data as per earlier information, and ‘then’ half states the reality to be proved. 

Numerous types of theorems are:

(1) Converse Theorem  

     A pair of theorem might encompass theorems converse to one another. ‘If’ a part of one theorem is ‘then’ a part of the opposite and vice versa. For instance:

Theorem: In a parallelogram, reverse angles are equal. 
Converse: If pair of reverse angles are equal in a quadrilateral, then it’s a parallelogram.

(2) Contra-positive Theorem 

When ‘if’ and ‘then’ elements (recognized and to show half) are introduced in detrimental kind, it’s contrapositive theorem. The negation of the ‘if’ half is assumed as a speculation, the negation of ‘then’ half is proved.

For instance:

Theorem: In a circle, if two chords are equal, then they kind equal arcs on a circle.
Contrapositive Type: In a circle, if two chords are unequal, then they kind unequal arcs on a circle.

(3) Reciprocal theorem 

In a theorem, two nouns are interchanged to kind a brand new theorem, if doable.

For instance:

Theorem: If two sides and included angle of a triangle are equal to the corresponding aspect and included angle of one other triangle, then the triangles are congruent (SAS congruence)
Reciprocal Theorem: If two angles and included aspect of a triangle are equal to the corresponding angles and included aspect of one other triangle, then the triangles are congruent (ASA congruence)


Now we have coated the journey from axioms to theorems. In actual fact, this journey kinds the construction of arithmetic. It might be defined as:

  1. Some observations result in kind speculation.
  2. A speculation is verified by examples.
  3. A verified speculation is then named ‘axiom’. 
  4. Axioms are universally accepted reality with out proof.
  5. Formation and verification of speculation contain using earlier information and sure recognized phrases.
  6. Additionally, earlier information and recognized phrases could also be used to clarify some new phrases. This rationalization of latest phrases is called ‘definition’. 
  7. New statements that may be proved logically utilizing ‘axioms’ and ‘ definitions’ are known as ‘theorems’
  8. Most of arithmetic is gathered into these axioms, definitions and theorems. So, the construction of arithmetic is fashioned by axioms, definitions and theorems.


A sentence that’s both true or false however not each is named a assertion. These statements that are accepted mathematically are known as mathematical statements.

For instance.

  1. The Sq. of three is 9.
  2. The Sum of two odd numbers is an excellent quantity 
  3. The product of two prime numbers is an odd quantity

Assertion (a) is true, (b) is fake, (c) is ambiguous i.e. typically true and typically false. So (a) and (b) are mathematical statements, whereas 9C0 shouldn’t be.


It’s a course of to show a given assertion. A press release is named a theorem, whether it is proved.
Strategies to show mathematical statements are:

  1. Direct methodology 
  2. Oblique methodology 

(a) Direct methodology 

The assertion is immediately proved true on this methodology. Axioms, definitions and former information are used for logical reasoning to infer the proof.


  1. Assertion: Sum two odd pure numbers is an excellent pure quantity.

Earlier information: odd quantity = 2n + 1 

Proof: odd quantity + odd quantity (recognized)

= (2 n + 1) + (2 m + 1) (earlier information)

= (2 n + 2 m) + (1 + 1) (logical reasoning)

= 2( n + m) + 2

        => even quantity 

(b) Oblique methodology

It’s tough to show every assertion by direct methodology. These statements that can not be proved by direct methodology, are proved by oblique methodology.

  1. Contradiction methodology 

Negation of assertion is assumed true. Negation of assumption (contradiction) is reached by logical reasoning. This course of proves the assertion.

For instance: 

Assertion: If n2 is an odd interger,

then n will even be an odd integer 

Proof: suppose n2 is an odd integer

and n shouldn’t be an odd integer

=> n is even 

=> n = 2k 

n2  = 4k2 

    = 2 (2k2

    = even integer

=> n2 is even integer 

    Which contradicts the idea 

Subsequently, n shouldn’t be even 

i.e. if n2 is an odd integer, then n can also be an odd integer.

 2. Contrapositive methodology 

The assertion is proved within the method that negation of ‘implication’ implies detrimental of ‘recognized half’.

For instance:

  1. Assertion: for 3 pure numbers a, b and c

If a + b = a + c, then b = c

i.e. a + b = a + c => b = c

Proof : suppose b ≠ c => a + b ≠ a + c

Thus if a + b = a + c, then b = c 

3. Proving a sttement by disproving its negation

If we show the negation of a press release as false, it implies that the assertion is true.

For instance: to be able to show that:

‘Every of the opposite two angles of a right-angled triangle is lower than 900, we might show that ‘every of the opposite angles of a right-angled – triangle shouldn’t be higher than or equal to 900

A easy instance is that to show ‘it’s sizzling’, one can show that ‘ it’s not chilly’.

4. Proving a press release by proving true the negation of its negation 

A press release could also be proved by proving the negation of negation assertion, for instance, have a look at the next statements:

A: In an isosceles triangle, angles reverse to equal sides are usually not equal (assertion)

B: In an isosceles triangle, angles reverse to equal aspect are usually not equal (negation of assertion)

C: In an isosceles triangle, angles reverse to unequal aspect are usually not equal (negation of 


So, to be able to show ‘A’ true, ‘C’ may be proved true.


A single instance might disprove the assertion. Such an instance is named counter instance. For instance:

  1. Assertion: All odd numbers higher than 1 are prime.

Counter instance: 9 is an odd quantity 

    9 > 1 and 9 = 3 × 3

=> 9 shouldn’t be prime

Though many numbers like 3, 5, 7, 11, 13 and many others. show the assertion true however a single instance, say 9 disproves the statements.

  1. Statements: The sum of two prime numbers isn’t prime.

Counter instance: 2 + 3 = 5

              Prime       Prime       Prime    
quantity      quantity   quantity

Though 3 + 5 = 8, 5 + 7 = 12  show the assertion to be true, however a single counter instance is adequate to disprove the assertion.


A conjecture is a press release that’s believed true, based mostly on our mathematical understanding and expertise. Such a press release is neither proved nor contradicted. In actual fact, conjectures are clever mathematical guesses that come up by searching for patterns.

Instance I: Observing the sample:

1 + 3 + 5 = 9

3 + 5 + 7 = 15

5 + 7 + 9 = 21

7 + 9 + 11 = 27

9 + 11 + 13 = 33

 _ _ _ _ _  _ _ _ _ _

 _ _ _ _ _  _ _ _ _ _

Any of the next clever guess or conjecture could also be fashioned:

  1. The Sum of three consecutive odd numbers is odd.
  2. The Sum of three consecutive odd numbers is divisible by 3.


A mathematical assertion should have any one of many following choices:

  1. A press release is proved true i.e. it has a justified proof.
  2. There exists an instance that proves the assertion false i.e. counter instance.
  3. Neither assertion is proved true, nor there may be discovered any counter instance. So is simply an clever guess or conjecture.

A press release is legitimate if it may be proved. It doesn’t matter whether it is proved by any methodology, direct or oblique.

The assertion shouldn’t be legitimate even when a single counter instance is given for the assertion In arithmetic, counter examples are used to disprove the assertion. Nevertheless, producing examples in favour of a press release doesn’t present validity of the assertion. 

In case of conjecture, validity is uncertain. It’s because the reality or falsity of a conjecture is but to be established. It’s only an clever guess.


Sure issues associated to arithmetic in day by day life are introduced earlier than college students. They apply logic, thought, reasoning and use acceptable mathematical ideas to unravel the issue. The function of a trainer is passive on this course of.

Numerous types of problem-solving actions or questions are as follows:

  • A number of-choice questions
  • Passage based mostly questions
  • Coin puzzle 
  • Logic drawback
  • Magic sq. and many others.

All of the above types of problem-solving actions could also be categorised as:

  • Qualitative kind or
  • Quantitative kind

The issues which can be based mostly upon definitions, formulation, comparisons and many others. are qualitative kind.

The issues which can be based mostly upon numerical calculations and discovering options are quantitative kind.


The method of problem-solving goes by the next steps:

  1. Identification of recognized and unknown information: Scholar identifies the given or recognized information. Additionally, he identifies the precise drawback i.e. what’s requested in the issue.
  2. Relate to mathematical information: Such issues don’t comply with a selected idea or chapter. The coed tries to search out the mathematical reality which will assist to unravel the issue.
  3. Discover the suitable methodology: After finding the related idea, the coed utilises his earlier information associated to the idea and tries to succeed in the answer.
  4. Discover the answer: College students comply with the working steps and carry out the required calculations to search out the answer.
  5. Verification of answer: After calculating the reply, the outcome needs to be checked to right the errors of calculations, if any. The behavior of checking the outcome needs to be developed in college students. A trainer might information them the strategy to confirm the outcome.

In the entire course of, trainer solely acts as information to college students. On this course of, scholar is an energetic participant whereas trainer is passive participant.


  1. Relate day by day life issues to mathematic

The follow of problem-solving makes college students assume over sure day by day life issues when it comes to mathematical information. They attempt to relate sure related day by day life issues to arithmetic.

2. Develop a capability to analyse the issue

The issue-solving course of helps the scholars to study ‘the best way to analyse an issue’. This course of makes them conscious to first analyse the given and requested a part of the issue.

3. Develop pondering and logical reasoning

Downside-solving course of makes college students ‘to assume upon’ at varied steps. It additionally makes them use earlier information and deduce the steps by logical reasoning.

4. Develop self-dependence and self-confidence

Within the problem-solving course of, college students transfer from begin to finish by themselves. Lecturers play solely passive function. College students establish, analyze, deduce and attain the answer by themselves. This builds up their self-dependence and reduces their dependence on others.

5. Cognitive improvement 

This course of provides memorable studying experiences to college students. The ideas, information and many others. learnt throughout this course of kind a exceptional print over the thoughts of scholars.

The method of problem-solving additionally brushes up their command over the language. On the entire, that is an attention-grabbing and clever course of.


  1. Restricted idea protection 

This course of might not be relevant to all mathematical ideas. It’s because it’s not doable to create such issues/questions/actions for every idea of arithmetic.

 2. Unavailability of textbook materials

Only a few issues can be found in textbooks as per the problem-solving course of, the trainer has to border such issues themselves for the practics of scholars.     

3. Time restrict for curriculum protection
Within the current schooling system, the curriculum needs to be coated by lecturers in a restricted length. This course of is a sluggish course of. It relies upon upon the velocity of scholars for fixing the issue. So it’s tough to cowl the curriculum underneath given time restrict with this sluggish tempo course of.

4. Not sensible for decrease courses The newbie and college students in decrease courses have little earlier information. So, it’s tough for them to use the problem-solving course of.

 5. Extra psychological work The method develops and offers technique to psychological work at the price of behavioural and artistic work. 


‘Creativity’ means ‘doing one thing in an attention-grabbing method’ or ‘doing one thing utilizing new concepts, new artwork and many others.’ It fills color to life. Numerous designs in garments, rangoli, varied shapes in nature, completely different shades of colors, so big and designer buildings, scrumptious selection in meals and many others. are examples that impart creativity in life. The creativity in life strengthens our ideas and work capability.


It’s vital for college students and lecturers to comply with by the trail of creativity in teaching-learning course of because it makes the method vibrant, shiny and efficient. Helps to enhance the cognitive and psychomotor stage of scholars. It helps lecturers to realize their goal simply and successfully.


The phrase ‘creativity’ is usually associated to artwork, craft, music, portray, dance, and many others. Creativity refers to doing new experiments, forming a brand new speculation, establishing new relations, discovering options and many others. These may be associated to any of the fields, say science, tradition, geography or arithmetic. There are a lot of types of creativity in arithmetic:

  • Derive formulation by actions
  • Introduce idea or rule by examples and actions 
  • Mathematical idea based mostly video games and puzzles 
  • Geometrical constructions 
  • Geometrical patterns 
  • Patterns in quantity 
  • Relating day by day life issues to arithmetic
  • Fixing issues by different strategies


  1. Artistic actions associated to mathematical ideas should be included as a part of the curriculum.
  2. Textbooks and study-material should present increasingly, stepwise defined actions associated to every sub-topic.
  3. A classroom should be formed like a ‘workshop’. Instructing-learning should go as self-learning by discussions and actions. Fixing textbook workout routines and sums should be the goal of classroom instructing. Reasonably imparting information and ideas to college students should be the goal of classroom instructing.
    4. Analysis should additionally contain the evaluation of idea formation. It  shouldn’t be restricted to pen-paper assessments.

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