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UN (UNITED NATIONS)
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization founded to maintain world peace after the second world war 2 in 1945 by 51 countries headquartered in New York.
When it was formed there were 45 members now it has 193 member states.
AIMS OF UN (UNITED NATIONS)
1.United Nations Organization is committed to working simultaneously to enhance the lives of poor people, to counter hunger, and encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms.
2.United Nations Organization maintains peace throughout the world.
3.This Organization is committed to maintaining international peace and security, promoting social progress, developing friendly relations among nations, better living standards, and human rights.
4.The United Nations has set sustainable development goals for 2030, to achieve a better and more sustainable future and agreed to climate action to limit global warming for all.
SIX ORGANS OF UN
1.The General Assembly:-
The member states of the United Nations are members of the General Assembly. The Secretary-General is elected by the General Assembly on the advice of the Security Council for five years.
All the 193 members states of the UN are represented in the United Nations General Assembly. It has a universal representation.
2.The United Nations Security Council:-
The United Nations Security Council has 15 members (5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members) each member has one vote. Its presidency changes and rotates every month. It enacts international sections and authorizes military action.
Permanent members are China, France, Russia, United States, and the United Kingdom.
Non-Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council are Estonia, Kenya, Ireland, India, Mexico, Niger, Norway, Saint Vincent, and the Grenadines, Vietnam, and Tunisia.
3.The Economic and Social Council:-
ECOSOC discusses the world’s economic, social and environmental challenges.
Seats on the council are administered based on geographical representation. Eleven to the Asian States and fourteen allocated to the African States, Six to the Eastern European States, ten to the Latin American States and the Caribbean States, and thirteen to Western European and more states. Currently, India was appointed to the UN Economic and Social Council for three-year terms from 2022-2024. It has 54 member countries.
It was entrenched to oversee the administration and also talk about the reports from the Administering Authority on the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the people of Trust Territories.
5.International Court of Justice:-
The United Nations International Court of Justice is a judicial organ of the UN. The court’s role is to settle disputation submitted by the states by international law and to give advisory judgment on legal questions.
The Security-General is at the top of the Secretariat. The secretariat carries out the frequent work of the United Nations.
WHY REFORMS ARE NEEDED IN UN?
There have been many calls to strengthen its effectiveness as a multilateral organization.
The G4 nations (India, Japan, Brazil, and Germany) have called for the reform in UNSC (United Nations Security Council).
1.Lack of effective strategy on fighting the covid-19 pandemic.
2.Five permanent members of the UNSC retains the veto power all from Northern Hemisphere.
3.Major Economies and Emerging world powers like India, Japan, Brazil, and Germany.
4.Current composition of the UN represents the post-world war two realities.
5.The regions like East Asia, South America, Africa have no representation in the permanent membership of the council.
United Nations should be more transparent, more efficient, more accountable.
Voluntarily Financial contributions are made from member states. Financial reforms of the United Nations are one of the significant effects that the institution faces at present. The member countries should ensure to contribute to the UN timely. The top three largest contributors to the UN are the Unites States of America (22%), China (12.005%), Japan (8.564%).
India is a non-permanent member the United Nations Security council for the term 2021-22 and India has been demanding a permanent seat in the United Nations security council.
United Nations comprises around 116,919 field forces from 123 countries. India has contributed 195,000 troops, participated in more than 49 missions, and 168 peacekeepers, the largest number from the country.
Considering the size of its economy, population, and the largest democracy in the world, India needs a permanent place in the council.
India’s candidature to the security council is a devotion to promote accountable and all-in solutions to international peace and security.
Given the changes in the international situation and increase in the number of U.N. member States and emerging new powers have emphasized reforms in the UN. Member States of the UN should fulfill their obligations.